The Kermadec region is a volcanically active and tectonically complex plate boundary system extending between New Zealand’s North Island in the south and Samoa in the north. Subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Australian plate produces the Kermadec Trench, with depths as great as 11,000m. Westward of the trench, the Kermadec Arc is a volcanically active ridge driven by fluids relseased from the subducting plate. Similar arc systems are known for their highly explosive eruptions. Further westward of the arc, seafloor spreading is in the Lau Basin back-arc spreading center.