51 pp., 1993, $3.00 WHOI-T-93-002
51 pp., 1993, $3.00 WHOI-T-93-002
Science, Vol. 235, pp. 853-860, 1987 WHOI-R-87-004
A large catalog of materials has been proposed as potential seabed resources, and some seabed materials such as hydrocarbons and tin already contribute to the world’s economy. Scientific advances have increased our knowledge of other seabed prospects, but realization of their potential will be determined by their relative economic accessibility compared to rival resources on land. Examination of existing stocks of conventional resources, and of the economic process by which new resources are added, suggests that most potential sources of seabed materials will not be exploited in the near future. Strategic behavior in seabed materials development, however, implies that investment in exploration and R&D could proceed on a larger scale and at a more rapid pace than might be expected solely on the basis of apparent commercial potential.
23 pp., 1992, $3.00 WHOI-W-92-001
There has been spectacular growth in the demand for and resource value of submerged cultural resources such as historic shipwrecks. The pace at which technology is providing access to submerged cultural resources appears to have outstripped institutional abilities to ensure resource conservation. These events present a dilemma for marine scientists and engineers who develop advanced marine technologies and who may be involved in value conflicts over the conservation of historic shipwrecks.
Hoagland, P., J. Yang, J.M. Broadus, and D.K.Y. Chu
In: Marsh, J.B. (ed.), Resources and Environment in Asia’s Marine Sector, Taylor & Francis, New York, pp. 219-275, 1992
In: Farrow. R.S. (ed.), Managing the Outer Continental Shelf Lands: Oceans of Controversy. Ocean Policy Studies, 18 pp., 1991 WHOI-R-91-003
Mineral developers face varying kinds of risks and uncertainties associated with the exploration, development, and production of minerals from a marine deposit. These risks can be geologic (e.g., ore grade), environmental (e.g., storm frequency), or legal (e.g., lease suspension). To the miner, these types of risks all have the same result: they raise the private costs of proving- out and working a deposit. Both geologic and environmental risks could be reduced through exploration and meteorological forecasting. This publication is concerned with the special case of legal risks arising from administrative discretion by a resource manager over the rights to work publicly controlled ocean minerals.
Broadus, J.M. and P. Hoagland
Ocean and Shoreline Management, Vol. 13, No. 3 & 4, pp. 275-294, 1990
Haney, J.C., J.M. Wunderle, and W.J. Arendt
American Birds, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 234-236, 1991 WHOI-R-91-004
Hurricane Hugo, a category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 140-150 miles per hour and gusts over 180 miles per hour, was perhaps the most violent storm ever to hit islands of the eastern Caribbean. The hurricane passed directly over or near Puerto Rico, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, and Dominica. Each of these islands harbor endangered, threatened, or otherwise vulnerable species of endemic forest birds. Hurricane Hugo’s initial impacts on and consequences for some West Indian birds following the storm’s landfalls during mid-September 1989 are reported, along with damage to each island. Hugo’s impacts on birds are contrasted with those of other historical hurricanes, and implications for future conservation strategies for island birds are noted.
Ross, D.A., J. Fenwick, M.A. Champ, and R. Knecht
In: Halsey, S.D. and R.B. Abel (eds.), Coastal Ocean Space Utilization. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Coastal Ocean Space Utilization, Elsevier Press, pp. 369-371, 1990 WHOI-R-90-006
In the late 1980’s, less than 1% of the resources consumed annually in the United States came from the ocean. The U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) proclaimed in 1983 gave the United States exclusive jurisdiction over ocean resources out to 200 n. mi. This extensive new zone adds over 3.9 billion acres of resource potential, more than doubling the “territorial size” of the United States. The EEZ offers many opportunities to improve the national economy of the United States. Nevertheless, the potential rewards from the development of ocean resources by the private sector have been greatly inhibited by the risks of candidate projects. Each opportunity or action is laden with different types of risk: technical, economic, environmental and political. Ocean Enterprises is a concept to explore and develop these resources. Among the areas that show the most promise for development are: marine mining of coastal heavy minerals, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), offshore waste treatment plants, mariculture (fish and shellfish) and platforms for air and space operations
In: Miller M.L. and J. Auyong (eds.), Proceedings of the 1990 Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism. A Symposium and Workshop on Balancing Conservation and Economic Development, Honolulu, Hawaii — 25-31 May 1990, Vol. I, pp. 248-255, 1990