In: Farrow. R.S. (ed.), Managing the Outer Continental Shelf Lands: Oceans of Controversy. Ocean Policy Studies, 18 pp., 1991 WHOI-R-91-003
Mineral developers face varying kinds of risks and uncertainties associated with the exploration, development, and production of minerals from a marine deposit. These risks can be geologic (e.g., ore grade), environmental (e.g., storm frequency), or legal (e.g., lease suspension). To the miner, these types of risks all have the same result: they raise the private costs of proving- out and working a deposit. Both geologic and environmental risks could be reduced through exploration and meteorological forecasting. This publication is concerned with the special case of legal risks arising from administrative discretion by a resource manager over the rights to work publicly controlled ocean minerals.
Villaret, C. and J.H. Trowbridge
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 96, No. C6, pp. 10659-10680, 1991 WHOI-R-91-002
Sediments suspended in turbulent flows of water over plane beds are known to influence the structure of the flows by which they are carried. Past attempts to model this effect have been based almost exclusively on a theoretical framework in which the dense solid particles stratify the flow and have an influence analogous to that of a downward heat flux in the stably stratified atmospheric surface layer. The authors compare results from a model based on this theoretical framework with laboratory measurements of ensemble-averaged velocity and ensemble-averaged particle concentration, obtained by previous investigators, in order to test the applicability of the theoretical approach to dilute suspensions of sand in turbulent flows of water.
Haney, J.C., J.M. Wunderle, and W.J. Arendt
American Birds, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 234-236, 1991 WHOI-R-91-004
Hurricane Hugo, a category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 140-150 miles per hour and gusts over 180 miles per hour, was perhaps the most violent storm ever to hit islands of the eastern Caribbean. The hurricane passed directly over or near Puerto Rico, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, and Dominica. Each of these islands harbor endangered, threatened, or otherwise vulnerable species of endemic forest birds. Hurricane Hugo’s initial impacts on and consequences for some West Indian birds following the storm’s landfalls during mid-September 1989 are reported, along with damage to each island. Hugo’s impacts on birds are contrasted with those of other historical hurricanes, and implications for future conservation strategies for island birds are noted.