Volatiles—such as water and carbon dioxide—play a central role in the generation and evolution of magmas deep within the Earth. Further, the concentration of volatiles in magmas stored in crustal reservoirs plays an important role in determining the explosivity of volcanic eruptions.
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The aragonite skeleton of scleractinian corals contain coherent seasonal and interannual variability in U/Ca. In field-sampled corals and those grown in controlled culture experiments, strong correlations have been found between coral skeleton U/Ca and water temperature, pH, carbonate ion concentration, and salinity.
The fugacity of oxygen in the oceanic upper mantle is a measure of the amount of oxygen available to react with elements – such as iron and carbon – that can exist in multiple valence states. Knowledge of upper mantle oxygen fugacity is important because it controls a number of parameters that significantly impact our interpretation of geophysical data and our understanding of mantle dynamics.